- Brain death from lack of oxygen usually begins in 4 minutes and is usually complete in less than 10 minutes.
- One in six men and one in eight women age 45 and over have had a heart attack or stroke.
- About 5,800 children 18 years old and under suffer out-of-hospital cardiac arrest each year from all causes – including trauma, cardiovascular causes and sudden infant death syndrome.
- The incidence of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest in high school athletes ranges from .28 to 1 death per 100,000 high school athletes annually in the U.S.
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
- The American Heart Association estimates that 100,000 to 200,000 lives of adults and children could be saved each year if CPR were performed early enough.
- Immediately providing CPR can double a person's chance of survival, and the sooner CPR is started, the greater the chance of survival.
- Less than one-third of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest victims receive bystander CPR.
- The most effective rate for chest compressions is 100 compressions per minute – the same rhythm as the beat of the BeeGee’s song, “Stayin’ Alive.”
- Studies have shown that children as young as 9 years old can learn and retain CPR skills
Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs)
- Unless CPR and defibrillation are provided within minutes of collapse, few attempts at resuscitation are successful.
- Even if CPR is performed, defibrillation with an AED is required to stop the abnormal rhythm and restore a normal heart rhythm.
- In cities such as Seattle, Washington, where CPR training is widespread and EMS response and time to defibrillation is short, the survival rate for witnessed VF cardiac arrest is about 30 percent.
- In cities such as New York City, where few victims receive bystander CPR and time to EMS response and defibrillation is longer, survival from sudden VF cardiac arrest averages 1–2 percent.
- Lay rescuer AED programs consisting of police in Rochester, Minn., security guards in Chicago's O'Hare and Midway airports, and security guards in Las Vegas casinos have achieved 50–74 percent survival for adults with sudden, witnessed, VF cardiac